Citing musical sources : Audio visual

 

 

Audio and Visual

As indicated in the notes and bibliography section of the guide, live performances are not usually included in a reference list. Instead, include details about the performance, including the title, date and performer(s) in the body of your text (CMOS 14.266). This is applicable to the author-date system as well.

1. Recordings on a physical medium like CDs etc. (CMOS 15.57): in-text citation

 

The in-text citation for a recording must contain the last name of the author and the year of publication. The author will depend upon the context of the citation. If the recording is being cited primarily in relation to the performer, the performer may be listed as the author. Similarly, if the recording is being cited primarily in relation to the composer, the composer may be listed as the author. It is also possible to list the name of the conductor as the primary author. If appropriate, the track no. may also be listed in the in-text citation.

(Gould 1982) or (Bach 1982)
Artist
(Last Name)
(Gould
1982)
Date
Artist
(Last Name)
(Bach
1982)
Date

 

Sample Sentence: Canadian pianist Glenn Gould is famous for his interpretation of Bach’s Goldberg Variations (Gould, 1982).

(Elridge 1989, track 3)
Artist
(Last Name)
(Elridge
1989,
Date
optional
track no.
track 3)

 

Recordings on a physical medium such as CDs etc. (CMOS 15.57): reference list

The reference list entries for recordings are often listed in a separate discography rather than in the main reference list. The primary author at the beginning of the citation could be the composer, performer, or conductor. Choose the primary author based on the context of the citation. For example, if the recording is being discussed in relation to the performer, the performer should be listed as the primary author:

Gould, Glenn, pianist. 1982. Goldberg Variations: BWV 988. By Johann Sebastian Bach. CBS Records Masterworks MK 37779, compact disc.
Artist
(last Name,
First Name)
Gould, Glenn, pianist.
Date
1982.
Album
Title
Goldberg Variations: BWV 988.
By
Composer
By Johann Sebastian Bach. CBS
Publisher
Records Masterworks
MK 37779,
Matrix
number
compact disc.
Format
 

If the recording is being discussed with main reference to the composer, the composer should be listed as the primary author:

Bach Johann Sebastian. 1982. Goldberg Variations: BWV 988. By Johann Sebastian Bach. CBS Records Masterworks MK 37779, compact disc.
Composer
(last Name,
First Name)
Bach, Johann Sebastian.
Date
1982.
Album
Title
Goldberg Variations: BWV 988.
With
Performer
With Glenn Gould, pianist.
Publisher
CBS Records Masterworks
MK 37779,
Matrix
number
compact disc.
Format
 

Aide, William. 2005. The Lyric Element. Arbordisc UTSS0503, compact disc.
Composer
(last Name,
First Name)
Aide, William.
Date
2005.
Album
Title
The Lyric Element.
Publisher
Arbordisc
Matrix
number
UTSS0503,
Format
 
compact disc.

Eldridge, Roy. 1989. Little Jazz. CBS Records CK 45275, compact disc.
Artist
(last Name,
First Name)
Eldridge, Roy.
Date
1989.
Album
Title
Little Jazz.
Publisher
CBS Records
Matrix
number
CK 45275,
Format
 
compact disc.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. 1991. Don Giovanni. Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Sir Colin Davis. Recorded May 1973, with Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa, et al. Philips 422 541-2, 3 compact discs.
Composer
(last Name,
First Name)
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus.
Date
1991.
Album
Title
Don Giovanni
With
Performer
Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Sir
Colin Davis. Recorded May 1973, with Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa, et al.
Recording
date
Philips
Publisher
422 541-2,
Matrix
number
3 compact discs.
Format
 

2. DVDs (CMOS 15.57): in-text citation

The in-text citation for a DVD will include the last name of the author/creator/artist and the date of publication.

(Cleese et al. 2001)
Last Name
of Author(s)
(Cleese et al.
2001)
Date
published

 

Sample Sentence:

The commentary on Monty Python and the Holy Grail contains interesting and entertaining anecdotes about the filming process (Cleese et al. 2001).

DVDs (CMOS 15.57): reference list 

Reference List entries for videos will vary according to the nature of the material and should include any facts relevant to identifying the item. Note that indexed scenes are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number.

Cleese, John, et al. 2001. "Commentaries." Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment.
Author(s)
(last Name,
First Name)
Cleese, John, et al.
Date
2001.
"Section Title"
Disc No.
"Commentaries." Disc 2
Title
Monty Python and the Holy Grail,
Edition
Format.
special ed. DVD.
Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones.
Directors
Culver City, CA:
City
Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment.
Publisher

 

3. Online audio and video (CMOS 15.57):

in-text citation The in-text citation for online audio and video files should contain the last name of the Author/creator/artist followed by the year of publication.

(Braid 2012)
Artist
(Last Name)
(Braid
2012)
Date


Sample Sentence: David Braid’s performance of his own composition “Le Phare” at the Goldcorp Centre for the Arts in September 2011 is available for viewing on YouTube (Braid 2012).

Online audio and video (CMOS 15.57): reference list

Citations for online streaming media that duplicate content of previously recorded material should include documentation of that performance as outlined above. Include the URL at the end of the citation. If the publication date is unknown, provide a date of access as the second last element in the reference list entry (CMOS 15.50). The second element in the citation, following the author, should indicate “n.d.” which stands for “no date” (CMOS 15.44).

Wagner, Richard. 2010. Tristan und Isolde. Bayreuth Festival Orchestra and Chorus. Peter Schneider. Recorded August 9, 2009, with Robert Dean Smith, et al. Opus Arte. 254 min. http://search.alexanderstreet.com/view/work/1753799.
Composer
(last Name,
First Name)
Wagner, Richard.
Date
2010.
Album
Title
Tristan und Isolde.
Performing Ensemble
Conductor
Bayreuth Festival Orchestra and Chorus. Peter Schneider.
Recorded August 9, 2009 with Robert Dean Smith, et al.
Recording date
Opus Arte.
Publisher
254 min.
Length

Nielsen, Wendy. 2001. Forgotten Songs, Forgotten Loves. With Robert Kortgaard, piano. Marquis. http://utoronto.naxosmusiclibrary.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/.
Artist
Last, First name
Nielsen, Wendy.
Date
2001.
Album Title
Forgotten Songs, Forgotten Loves.
With Select
Performers
With Robert Kortgaard, piano.
Publisher
Marquis.

For material that is posted directly to the Internet, such as YouTube videos, gather the creator, title, source type, length, and any other important information directly from the material. The URL should be the last element in the reference list entry.

Braid, David. 2012. "David Braid Solo Piano 2011." YouTube video, 5:58. https://youtu.be/sEzxqZn3578.
Artist
Last, First name
Braid, David.
Date
2012.
"Title"
"David Braid Solo Piano 2011."
Source Type
YouTube video
Length
5:58.