Citing theses and manuscripts (author date format)

1. Theses and dissertations

The in-text citation for theses and dissertations contain the last name of the author and the year of publication.

In-text Citation:

Format: 

  • (Author Last Name Year Published) 

Example: 

  • (Stendebach 2023) 

Sample Sentence: The ska scene, once in decline, has been reclaimed as a space of activism and inclusion (Stendebach 2023).

Bibliography:

Theses and dissertations can be cited in author-date format by adapting the notes-bibliography recommendations (CMOS 14.215). Theses and dissertations are treated similar to books except that the title is in quotation marks rather than italics, and citations include information on the type of thesis and academic institution. Include a URL for documents consulted online. If you accessed the work through a commercial database like ProQuest Dissertations, include this information in the citation along with an identification number if it has one.

Format: 

  • Author Last Name, First Name. Year Published. “Title.” Type of Thesis. Academic Institution. Database Number or URL if applicable. 

Example: 

  • Stendebach, Steven. 2023. “Joyous Retaliation: Activism and Identity in the New Tone SKA Scene.” ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

2. Manuscripts: in-text citation

The in-text citation for a manuscript includes the last name of the author, followed by the year of the version consulted. If the year of the manuscript is unknown, the second element in the citation should indicate “n.d.” which stands for “no date” (CMOS 15.44).

In-text Citations:

Format: 

  • (Author Last Name Year Published) 

Examples: 

  • (MacLean 2015) 
  • (Zapata, n.d.) 

Sample Sentence: The music library clearly documents circulation policies and procedures to ensure consistency for our patrons (MacLean 2015).

Bibliography:

The term “manuscript” generally refers to various types of unpublished documents. In music-related studies, this is often either an author’s text, possibly on its way to being published, or a historical document like the Old Hall Manuscript. For documents of the former type, entries begin with the author’s name followed by the date of the version consulted. The title of the manuscript appears next in quotation marks, followed by the indication “unpublished manuscript.” The specific version or modification date comes next and the format of the manuscript. For book manuscripts that are still in the process of being published and have not yet been released, the term “forthcoming” appears as the second element in the entry. 

Format: 

  • Author Last Name, First Name. Year Published. “Title.” Unpublished manuscript. Date of Version Consulted. Format. 
  • Author Last Name, First Name. Forthcoming. “Title.” Publication information (if applicable). 

Examples: 

  • MacLean, Jan. 2015. “Circulation Policies and Procedures.” Unpublished manuscript. Last modified September 10, 2015. Microsoft Word file. 
  • Guess, Raymond. Forthcoming. “Changing the Subject: Philosophy from Socrates to Adorno.” Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

3. Manuscript collections

(CMOS 15.54)

The in-text citation for a manuscript collection typically contains the manuscript title. If you are citing a single item in a manuscript collection, the in-text citation may contain the last name of the author if known as the first element. If the author is unknown, the title of the individual item may appear as the first element. If possible, include the page number or file number of the manuscript in in-text citations. Manuscripts may have page numbers, file numbers, or folio numbers, or may be unnumbered. Due to this ambiguity, the inclusion of the page, file, or folio number is optional.

In-text Citation:

Format: 

  • (Author Last Name, Page number) (Manuscript Title) (“Item title,” Folio numbers) 

Examples: 

  • (Handel, 13) (Aylesford Manuscripts) (“Ave virgo virginum,” fol.240r-240v) 

Sample Sentence: In this conductus example dating from the late twelfth or early thirteenth century, the text-setting is largely syllabic (“Ave virgo virginum,” fol. 240r-240v).

Bibliography:

The reference list entry for manuscript collections typically contains the name of the author or composer if known, the title of the manuscript, the title of any larger collection it may be a part of, and the name of the depository in which it is located. If you are citing an individual item from a manuscript collection, the name of the individual item should appear in quotation marks after the author/composer. If a shelf listing identifier is available, this information may be included after the title of the item, but is not strictly necessary. Although a date does not appear in the reference list entry, dates, when known, should appear in the text when making reference to the item. 

Format:  

  • Author Last Name, First Name. “Item Title.” Shelf Listing Identifier in Italics. Manuscript Title. Collection Title. Name of Depository. 

Examples:  

  • Aylesford Manuscripts. Newman Flower Collection. Manchester Central Library. 
  • Handel, George Frideric. “Il pastor fido.” MS 130 Hd4 v.234. Aylesford Manuscripts. Newman Flower Collection. Manchester Central Library.