On this page:
1. Books and scores (one author or composer)
The normal citation information for books and scores with one author or composer includes their name, title of the book or score, and publication information (see CMS 14.75). If the book or score is an electronic download, include information indicating the format you consulted as there are often differences beween them (CMS 14.159). When citing an online book, include the URL or DOI (digital object identifier) at the end of the citation (CMS 14.161). (See CMS 14.18 for instructions on how to break unwieldly URLs onto separate lines.)
Footnotes present the same information as in bibliographies, but follow more a traditional word order, as in the examples below.
1 author's name, title (place of publication: name of publisher, year published), page number.
1Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2003), 34.
Footnote/Endnote numbers increase throughout your document, as follows:
- Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2003), 34.
- Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.
- Adam Begley, Updike (New York: Harper, 2014), chap. 2, iBooks.
- Mark Evan Bonds, Absolute Music: The History of an Idea (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 131, https
- Roger Martin du Gard, Lieutenant-Colonel de Maumort, trans. Luc Brébion and Timothy Crouse (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 57.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Le nozze di Figaro (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1999), 89.
- Johann Dismas Zelenka, Five Capriccios (Munich: Musikproduktion Höflich, 2013), 12.
The items listed in your footnotes or endnotes are also listed alphabetically in your bibliography by the author's last name. The other elements (city, publisher, etc) are also listed, but in a different way than in your footnotes:
- Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2003.
- Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.
- Begley, Adam. Updike. New York: Harper, 2014. iBooks.
- Bonds, Mark Evan. Absolute Music: The History of an Idea. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. https
://doi-org.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/10.1093/acprof:oso/ 9780199343638.001. 0001.
- Walkinshaw, Stuart Max. Garden City Waltzes. St. Catharines, ON: M. Walkinshaw, 1893. http
- Zelenka, Johann Dismas. Five Capriccios. Munich: Musikproduktion Höflich, 2013.
2. Books with two to ten authors or editors.
In books or scores with multiple authors, note that only the first author's name is inverted in the bibliography (i.e. LastName, FirstName). The remaining authors are listed in order of their appearance on the book in the regular order (i.e. FirstName LastName). Footnotes retain the usual order for all contributors (FirstName LastName).
- Linda Hutcheon and Michael Hutcheon, Opera: The Art of Dying (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 45-52.
- Grimes, Nicole, Siobhan Donovan, and Wolfgang Marx, eds. Rethinking Hanslick: Music, Formalism, and Expression. Suffolk, UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2013.
3. Books with more than ten authors or editors
The pattern for books with up to ten authors or editors is to cite all conributors in the bibliography, as per the previous examples. This is very rare for music-related publications. If there are more than ten, list the first seven authors followed by the latin "et al." to let the reader know there are more contributors. (Note that this is different than in the footnote, which uses "et al" after the first author entry.)
4. A chapter from a book of essays, a score from an anthology, or an edited score with an introductory note
(CMS 14.107, 14.110)
Citations to contributors of this type of publication follow the format outined in the first three examples below. If you are referencing an item with a generic title, such as an introduction or preface, that term is simply added before the book or score title without quotation marks, as with the Steven Zohn example, below.
- Steven Zohn, introduction to Twelve Trios, by George Philipp Telemann, ed. Steven Zohn (Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 2000), ix.
- Alice Goodman, "Program Note," in Nixon in China, by John Adams (New York: Boosey & Hawkes,1999), vi.
- Thomas Weelkes, "As Vesta Was," in Norton Anthology of Western Music, 6th ed., vol. 1, ed. J. Peter Burkholder and Claude V. Palisca (New York: W. W. Norton, 2010), 343.
- Goodman, Alice. "Program Note." In Nixon in China, by John Adams, iv-v. New York: Boosey & Hawkes,1999.
- Harris, Ellen. "Harmonic Patterns in Handel's Operas." In Eighteenth-Century Music in Theory and Practice, edited by Mary Ann Parker, 77-118. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1994.
- Zohn, Steven. Introduction to Twelve Trios, by Georg Philipp Telemann, ix-xvii, edited by Steven Zohn. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 2000.