Citing books and scores

1. Books and scores (one author or composer)

The normal citation information for books and scores with one author or composer includes their name, title of the book or score, and publication information (see CMS 14.75). If the book or score is an electronic download, include information indicating the format you consulted as there are often differences between them (CMS 14.159). When citing an online book, include the URL or DOI (digital object identifier) at the end of the citation (CMS 14.161). (See CMS 14.18 for instructions on how to break unwieldly URLs onto separate lines.)

Footnote/Endnote:

Footnotes present the same information as in bibliographies, but follow more a traditional word order, as in the examples below.

Format:

  • 1 Author First Name Last Name, Title in Italics (City of publication: Name of Publisher, Year Published), Page number.

Example:

  • 1 Craig Harris, Rise up!: Indigenous music in North America (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2023), 13.

Footnote/Endnote numbers increase throughout your document, as follows:

  • 1Adam Begley, Updike (New York: Harper, 2014), chap. 2, iBooks.
  • 2Craig Harris, Rise up!: Indigenous music in North America (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2023), 13.
  • 3Mark Evan Bonds, Absolute Music: The History of an Idea (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 131, https://doi-org.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/10.1093/acprof:oso/ 9780199343638.001.0001.
  • 4Roger Martin du Gard, Lieutenant-Colonel de Maumort, trans. Luc Brébion and Timothy Crouse (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), 57.
  • 5Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Le nozze di Figaro (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1999), 89.
  • 6Johann Dismas Zelenka, Five Capriccios (Munich: Musikproduktion Höflich, 2013), 12.

Bibliography:

The items listed in your footnotes or endnotes are also listed alphabetically in your bibliography by the author's last name. The other elements (city, publisher, etc.) are also listed, but in a different way than in your footnotes:

Format:

  • Author Last Name, First Name. Title in Italics. City of publication: Name of publisher, Year published. 

Examples:

  • Begley, Adam. Updike. New York: Harper, 2014. iBooks.
  • Bonds, Mark Evan. Absolute Music: The History of an Idea. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. https://doi-org.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/10.1093/acprof:oso/ 9780199343638.001. 0001.
  • Harris, Craig. Rise up!: Indigenous music in North America. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2023.
  • Walkinshaw, Stuart Max. Garden City Waltzes. St. Catharines, ON: M. Walkinshaw, 1893. http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/obj/m5/f2/csm8352.pdf.
  • Zelenka, Johann Dismas. Five Capriccios. Munich: Musikproduktion Höflich, 2013.

2. Books with two to ten authors or editors.

(CMS 14.76)

In books or scores with multiple authors, note that only the first author's name is inverted in the bibliography (i.e. Last Name, First Name). The remaining authors are listed in order of their appearance on the book in the regular order (i.e. First Name Last Name). Footnotes retain the usual order for all contributors (First Name Last Name).

Footnote/Endnote:

Format:

  • 1 Author First Name Last Name, Title in Italics (City of publication: Name of publisher, Year published), Page number.

Examples:

  • 1 Charity Marsh and Mark. V. Campbell, eds, We Still Here: Hip Hop North of the 49th Parallel (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2023).

Bibliography:

Format:

  • Author Last Name, First Name. Title in Italics. City of publication: Name of publisher, year published.

Examples:

  • Harris, Ellen. "Harmonic Patterns in Handel's Operas." In Eighteenth-Century Music in Theory and Practice, edited by Mary Ann Parker, 77-118. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1994.
  • Weekles, Thomas. "As Vesta Was." in Norton Anthology of Western Music. 6th ed., vol. 1, ed. J. Peter Burkholder and Claude V. Palisca. New York: W. W. Norton, 2010.
  • Marsh, Charity, and Mark V. Campbell, eds. We Still Here: Hip Hop North of the 49th Parallel. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2020.
  • Zohn, Steven. Introduction to Twelve Trios, by Georg Philipp Telemann, ix-xvii, edited by Steven Zohn. Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 2000.

 


 

3. Books with more than ten authors or editors

(CMS 14.76)

The pattern for books with up to ten authors or editors is to cite all contributors in the bibliography, as per the previous examples. This is very rare for music-related publications. If there are more than ten, list the first seven authors followed by the Latin "et al." to let the reader know there are more contributors. (Note that this is different than in the footnote, which uses "et al" after the first author entry.)


4. A chapter from a book of essays, a score from an anthology, or an edited score with an introductory note

(CMS 14.107, 14.110)

Citations to contributors of this type of publication follow the format outlined in the first three examples below. If you are referencing an item with a generic title, such as an introduction or preface, that term is simply added before the book or score title without quotation marks, as with the Steven Zohn example, below.

Footnote/Endnote:

Format:

  • 1 Author First Name, Last Name, "Chapter Title," in Book Title in Italics, ed. Editor Name (City of publication: Name of publisher, Year published), Page number.

Examples:

  • Grimes, Nicole, Siobhan Donovan, and Wolfgang Marx, eds. Rethinking Hanslick: Music, Formalism, and Expression. Suffolk, UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2013.
  • Hutcheon, Linda, and Michael Hutcheon. Opera: The Art of Dying. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Bibliography:

Format:

  • Composer Last Name, First Name. "Title of Chapter/Selection." In Anthology/Book Title in Italics. Edition, Volume, edited by Editors, Page numbers of Chapter/Selection. City of publication: Name of publisher, Year published. 

Examples:

  • Steven Zohn, introduction to Twelve Trios, by George Philipp Telemann, ed. Steven Zohn (Madison, WI: A-R Editions, 2000), ix.
  • Alice Goodman, "Program Note," in Nixon in China, by John Adams (New York: Boosey & Hawkes,1999), vi.
  • Thomas Weelkes, "As Vesta Was," in Norton Anthology of Western Music, 6th ed., vol. 1, ed. J. Peter Burkholder and Claude V. Palisca (New York: W. W. Norton, 2010), 343.