Citing Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

1. An article from a print dictionary or encyclopedia:

Citations to well-known dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other major reference works, are normally cited in notes rather than in bibliographies (CMS 14.232). For reference works with substantial, authored entries it is appropriate to cite the entries by their author, much like contributions to a multi-author book. (See CMS 14.234 and CMS 14.107).

Footnote/Endnote Examples:

  1. Colin Fallows, "Art and Art Schools," in Media, Industry and Society, vol. 1 of Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, ed. John Shepherd et al. (London: Continuum, 2003), 154.
  2. Marita P. McClymonds and Daniel Heartz, "Opera Seria," in Nisard to Palestrina, vol. 18 of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie (New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001), 487.
  3. Stephen Walsh, "Stravinsky, Igor (Fyodorovich)," in Grove Music Online, ed. Deanne Root et al. (Oxford University Press, 2007-), accessed September 16, 2017,

Bibliography Examples:

For bibliographies, the normal citation order is: Last name, first name. "Article Title." In Title, edited by first_name last_name, page numbers. City: Publisher, year

  • Fallows, Colin. "Art and Art Schools." In Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World vol. 1, edited by John Shepherd et al., 152-57. London: Continuum, 2003.

2. An article from an online dictionary or encyclopedia:

  • Walsh, Stephen. "Stravinsky, Igor (Fyodorovich)." In Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007-. Accessed September 16, 2015. http://

***Note that in some cases, as with well-known sources like Grove Music Online, it may be appropriate to shorten particularly unwieldy URLs to after the first forward slash (i.e. the slash that follows a domain extension such as .com). (See CMS 14.10)